These Basic Knowledges You Should Know as Software Engineer

These Basic Knowledges You Should Know as Software Engineer


Software development is a complex process involving a series of carefully navigated stages to achieve a high-quality end product. In today’s rapidly evolving technological landscape, key aspects of a software development, including programming, testing, and deployment, play crucial roles in ensuring that software products are ready to compete in a competitive market. Let’s delve deeper into these three aspects: 


Programming serves as the initial stage in software development, where developers utilize various programming languages to translate business requirements into executable code. This process demands a deep understanding of programming logic, algorithms, and data structures. Popular programming languages include Python, JavaScript, and C++.

It’s essential for developers to select programming languages tailored to their project needs and process a strong understanding of best programming practices. This ensures the production of efficient, understandable code.

1. Principal of Programming.

  • Programming Logic: The ability to understand and apply effective programming logic, including the use of control structure like branching and looping.
  • Algorithm Understanding: Capability to comprehend algorithmic concepts and efficiently implement algorithms to solve problems.

2. Programming Languages.

  • Having good knowledge of one or more relevant programming languages along with the ability to use the features of those languages effectively. 
  • Understanding programming paradigms such as object-oriented, functional, and procedural programming.

3. Data Structures and Algorithms.

  • Knowledge of various data structures such as arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, and graphs, as well as the ability to choose the right data structure according to the requirements. 
  • Understanding of search algorithms, sorting algorithms, and another common algorithm, as well as the ability to apply them correctly. 

4. Compilation and Interpretation Concepts. 

  • Understanding the difference between compiled and interpreted programming languages, and how the compilation and interpretation processes occur.

5. Problem-Solving.

  • It is necessary to be able to analyze problems systematically, formulate problem-solving strategies, and effectively implement solutions using programming. 

6. Frameworks and Libraries.

  • Framework Understanding: Knowledge of popular frameworks in programming languages, as well as the ability to use these frameworks to accelerate software development. 
  • Library Usage: The ability to use available libraries or packages to expand application functionality without needing to implement everything from scratch. 

7. Software Security.

  • Understanding software security concepts including common cyber-attacks and secure coding practices to mitigate security risks.

8. Documentation and Clean Code.

  • Importance of Documentation: Understanding the importance of good documentation to facilitate code maintenance and team collaboration.
  • Clean Code: The ability to write code that is readable, understandable, and manageable by others while adhering to clean coding practices. 


Testing is a critical stage in software development aimed at ensuring that software functions as expected and meets the established quality standards. There are various types of tests than can be performed, including unit tests, functional tests, and performance tests. 

Unit tests are conducted to test small units of code in isolation, while integration tests examine the interaction between these units. Functional tests check whether the software behaves according to the specified requirements, while performance tests measure the software’s performance under specific conditions. 

By conducting tests regularly throughout the development process, developers can identify and rectify bugs or potential issues before the software is released to end users. This helps improve the quality and reliability of software product. 

Here the things that software engineers need to know in the testing stage: 

1. Types of Testing.

  • Unit Testing: Checking small units of code in isolation to ensure that each unit functions as intended.
  • Integration Testing: Examining the interaction between previously tested units to ensure they work together properly. 
  • Functional Testing: Verifying that the software behaves according to the specified functional requirements. 
  • Performance Testing: Assessing the software’s performance under specific conditions, such as high loads or sustained usage. 

2. Testing Strategies.

  • Understanding the difference between black-box testing (based on specifications) and white-box testing (based on internal structure) and when to apply each approach. 
  • Recognizing the difference between top-down testing (starting from the highest system level) and bottom-up testing (starting from the smallest units) and when to implement each approach. 
  • Ensuring the changes made to the code do not affect existing functions. 

3. Testing Tools.

  • Testing Framework: Understanding popular testing frameworks such as JUnit for unit testing Java, and PyTest for Python. 
  • Functional Testing Tools: Familiarity with tools like Selenium for automating functional testing in web applications.
  • Performance Testing Tools: Utilizing tools like Apache JMeter to measure and monitor application performance. 

4. Test Cases: 

  • Writing Effective Test Cases: The ability to write comprehensive and detailed test cases to test various aspects of the software. 
  • Edge Case Thinking: Including unusual or extreme test cases to ensure that the software can handle unexpected situations. 

5. Test Automation:

  • Benefits of Automation: Understanding the benefits of test automation in improving efficiency, speeding up the development cycle, and reducing the risk of human errors. 
  • Selection of Right Automation Tools: Choosing automation tools that fit the project needs and development environment. 

6. Reporting Test Results:

  • The ability to create clear test result reports including found bugs, severity levels, steps to reproduce, and recommendations for improvement. 

7. Understanding Software Development Lifecycle: 

  • Understanding where the testing phase fits into the software development lifecycle and how testing interacts with other stages. 

Deployment: Ensuring Smooth Transition from Development to Production.

Deployment marks the final stage in software development, where the software that has been developed is transitioned from the development environment to the production environment for use by end users. This process involves configuration, testing, and launching the software in the appropriate environment. 

Deployment is a critical stage in the software development lifecycle where complemented software is moved from the deployment environment to the production environment for the users. A software engineer must pay attention to various aspects that should not be overlooked in this stage to ensure proper functioning. Here are some key considerations that a software engineer should not overlook during the deployment stage: 

1. Comprehensive Testing.

  • End-to-End Testing: Ensure that the software has undergone comprehensive end-to-end testing in an environment similar to production to ensure that all features function correctly. 
  • Performance Testing: Conduct performance testing to ensure that the software can handle expected user loads without significant performance degradation. 

2. Production Environment Configuration.

  • Server Configuration: Ensure that servers or infrastructure used in the production environment are properly configured and meet the needs of the software. 
  • Database Connection: Ensure that the database connection to the production environment is properly configured and accessible to the software. 

3. Configuration Management.

  • Configuration Management: Ensure that all software configurations, including environment settings and database connection configurations, are well-managed and clearly documented. 
  • Environment Variables Usage: Avoid using static configurations and leverage environment variables to manage configurations that may vary between development and protection environments. 

4. Automation Deployment.

  • Automation Scripts: Utilize automation scripts to execute the deployment process consistently and efficiently, avoiding human errors that may occur during manual processes. 
  • Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD): Implement CI/CD pipelines to automate deployment whenever there is a code change, speeding up the development cycle and enhancing deployment consistency. 

5. Backup and Recovery.

  • Data Backup: Ensure to create backups of essential data before deployment, enabling data recovery in case of failure during the process.
  • Emergency Recovery: Prepare clear and documented emergency recovery plans to address deployment failures or other issues that may arise in the production environment. 

6. Monitoring and Maintenance.

  • Monitoring Tools: Implement adequate monitoring tools to monitor the performance of software and infrastructure in the production environment.
  • Regular Maintenance: Schedule routine maintenance to update and repair software and infrastructure used in the production environment. 

7. Version Management.

  • Ensure that software versions to be deployed in the production environment have been well-managed using version control systems like Git, and the version to be deployed matches what has been tested and approved. 

8. Risk Management.

  • Risk Evaluation: Conduct risk assessment before deployment and identify necessary mitigation steps to reduce the risk of deployment failure.
  • Emergency Plan: Prepare a clear and comprehensive emergency plan to handle emergency situations that may arise during or after the deployment process.


It is important to ensure that the deployment process is carried out carefully to avoid disruptions or damage to existing systems. Automating deployment using tools like Docker and Kubernetes can help reduce risks and increase efficiency. 

Furthermore, monitoring and maintaining software after deployment are also crucial to ensure that the software continues to run smoothly and meets user needs. 


In conclusion, important aspects of software development such as programming, testing and deployment are interconnected and play vital roles in creating high-quality software products that can compete in the competitive market. By understanding and implementing best practices in each stage, developers can enhance efficiency and produce satisfactory products for end users. 

With strong understanding of programming principles, testing strategies, and good deployment practices, a software engineer can ensure that software products produced are of high quality and meet established standards. 

A deep understanding of programming languages, algorithms, and data structure allows a software engineer to develop more efficient and effective solutions to complex problems. Similarly, understanding automation in testing and deployment helps improve development cycle efficiency by speeding up testing and deployment processes while reducing risks of errors. 

Having a general knowledge of software development aspects allows a software engineer to communicate and collaborate more effectively with other team members, including developers, testers, and system administrators.